Mike Will

How to Copyright Your Music in 6 Steps

If you recently released a new single or album, it’s important to copyright your new music as soon as possible.

Technically, in order to copyright a song, assuming it’s your original work, it just needs to be made into a tangible form (so if you write it down or record it). However, registering your musical works or sound recordings with the U.S. copyright office provides enforceable protection against those who may try to infringe upon your creation. Without a registered copyright, you cannot access the courts to enforce it.

DIY vs. seeking professional help

As with trademarking a band name, to ensure that your copyright registration process is error-free, you can use an online copyright registration service like the one offered by LegalZoom (affiliate link), or consult a music attorney to register your copyright on your behalf.

Otherwise, to learn how to copyright your song (or songs) with the U.S. copyright office online, take a look at the 6 steps below.

1. Prepare for the process

Before you start filling out and sending the appropriate forms to the government, you want to make sure you have everything in order.

Here’s a list of things you should have available for each song you’re going to copyright:

  • Song info (artist, album, and any other applicable information.)
  • Split sheets for each song (an agreement that identifies each producer and songwriter, and states the contributor’s ownership percentage of a song.)
  • MP3’s.
  • Lyrics.

2. Go to the U.S. government’s copyright website

Once you have this information readily available, head over to copyright.gov to get started.

Under “How do I…” select “Register a Copyright.”

how-to-register-a-copyright

Then click the “Log in to eCO” button.

copyright-song-login-to-eco

3. Create your account

Click on the “new user” option to create your account.

copyright-create-account

You’ll need to provide the following:

  • Name.
  • Address.
  • Country (if not from the USA).
  • Phone details.
  • Preferred contact method.

4. Start a new copyright registration

Once you’re logged in, it’s time to start a new copyright registration.

To get started, click “Register new claim” in the section on the left side.

copyright-register-new-claim

If you’re registering multiple songs, check “No” on the box for “I am registering one work.”

Note: An album can be a single work. What is protected is the arrangement of the songs (choice of songs, order in which they appear); an album is a collective work. Thus, a collection of songs has a single author if the person who arranged them is a single person, and that arranger is the author. An example of this occurrence is a various artists album. The person or business entity, who licenses the copyrights in the underlying musical works and sound recordings, is granted authorship and ownership in the selection and arrangement only of the musical titles. Thus, the album has a single author and owner.

start-copyright-registration

Next, select the type of work from the “Type of Work” dropdown.

If you are registering a recording, select “Sound Recordings.” Otherwise, if you wish to register only the underlying work that is a musical composition or song lyrics, select “Performing Arts.”

In some circumstances, an artist/band agrees to an exclusive recording agreement with a label and licenses their rights in the music and lyrics to the label to record the masters, which then the label owns by virtue of their recording agreement. If the artist/band records their own songs, and pays for their own masters, then it is more likely the artist/band will be the author of the sound recording as well as the underlying musical works.

This Q&A explains the difference between a sound recording and performing arts copyright in more detail.

type-of-copyright-work

Then click “New,” and start filling in the prompts such as who the co-writers are, published date, etc.

5. Pay the fee (BEFORE uploading your works)

The copyright office requires you to pay the fee before actually uploading the files for your songs.

For one work, the fee is $35. If you’re submitting multiple works, then the fee is $55. You can pay this with a credit card, debit card, electronic check, or copyright office deposit account.

You can take a look at more of the fees associated with copyrights here.

6. Upload your works

After submitting your payment, the site will ask you to upload the appropriate files.

You can upload as many files as you want, but they have an upload size limit which they explain to be about 135 128kbps songs, so when uploading your sound recordings, you may need to re-compress your songs to make them smaller.

Finally, just click “Upload Complete” and you’re done!

Once your application is submitted, it can take a few months for the review process to be completed. The effective date of your copyright will begin on the date that the Copyright Office receives and accepts and the following:

  1. The filing fee.
  2. The application.
  3. All required deposit cop(ies) of the work(s).

Keep in mind that under U.S. copyright law, any knowingly falsified information on a copyright application if learned in a court proceeding can result in a refusal of enforcement of copyright. See 17 USC 411(b).

After copyrighting your songs, it might be a good idea to join a performance rights organization like BMI, ASCAP, or SESAC to start getting paid when people use your music.

If you want to learn more about music and copyright, check out the book All You Need to Know About the Music Business by Don Passman (affiliate link).

Special thanks to entertainment lawyer Lee Morin for helping with corrections and additional details for this article!

– See more at: http://blog.dozmia.com/how-to-copyright-a-song/#sthash.rd1o5Kc8.dpuf

Karmic Releases ‘Higher Self’

KARMIC is an upbeat LA-based act comprised of two female vocalists, an electric guitarist, and a DJ. The unique quartet recently put out the equally unique single, “Higher Self.” The band mixes pop vibes with a unique delivery – fans of Wild Belle, Tegan & Sara, The Ting Tings, or Matt & Kim would dig this jam.

 

Complete Audio Recording / ASCAP 890916767
 119 BPM / 3:48 / C# Minor

HIGHER SELF * KARMIC

POP ROCK / ELECTRONIC / ALTERNATIVE

Contemplative, Dancing and Uplifting Moods Motivational, Eighties (80s), and Inspirational Style Female Vocals (English) Sounds Like Chromeo, The Ting Tings, Ladyhawke, Little Boots.


Keywords Bright, Breath, Meditation, Awareness, Believing, Grateful, Third Eye, Heart, Dance, Mannequin, Funny, Learning, Masks, Flowers, Life, Karma. Laura Baruch and Kyle Tkatch on vocals
 Produced by Peter Kastner and Samuel Murphy

Download All platforms at https://fanlink.to/higher-self-karmic

The band’s ‘Higher Self’ music video releases on Friday, December 2, 2016.

Licensing: available for sync licensing opportunities by negotiation. Contact:

Mike Downey Sound Saves 310-514-6820 Mike@SoundSaves.com

higher-self-karmic-cover-art

The Ancient Solfeggio Scale

These Solfeggio frequencies make up the sacred Solfeggio scale:
UT – 396 Hz
Intent: turning grief into joy, liberating guilt & fear
This frequency liberates the energy and has beneficial effects on feelings of guilt. It cleanses the feeling of guilt, which often represents one of the basic obstacles to realization, enabling achievement of goals in the most direct way. The ‘Ut’ tone releases you from the feeling of guilt and fear by bringing down the defense mechanisms. 396 Hz frequency searches out hidden blockages, subconscious negative beliefs, and ideas that have led to your present situations.
RE – 417 Hz
Intent: undoing situations and facilitating change
The next main tone from the Solfeggio scale produces energy to bring about change. This frequency cleanses traumatic experiences and clears destructive influences of past events. When speaking of cellular processes, tone ‘Re’ encourages the cell and its functions in an optimal way. 417 Hz frequency puts you in touch with an inexhaustible source of energy that allows you to change your life.
MI – 528 Hz
Intent: transformation and miracles (DNA repair)
Tone ‘Mi’ is used to return human DNA to its original, perfect state. This frequency brings transformation and miracles into your life. The process of DNA reparation is followed by beneficial effects – increased amount of life energy, clarity of mind, awareness, awakened or activated creativity, ecstatic states like deep inner peace, dance and celebration. Tone ‘Mi’ activates your imagination, intention and intuition to operate for your highest and best purpose.
FA – 639 Hz
Intent: re-connecting and balancing, relationships
Another frequency from the sacred Solfeggio scale. It enables creation of harmonious community and harmonious interpersonal relationships. Tone ‘Fa’ can be used for dealing with relationships problems – those in family, between partners, friends or social problems. When talking about cellular processes, 639 Hz frequency can be used to encourage the cell to communicate with its environment. This ancient Solfeggio frequency enhances communication, understanding, tolerance and love.
SOL – 741 Hz
Intent: solving problems, expressions/solutions
It cleans the cell (“Solve polluti“) from the toxins. Frequent use of 741 Hz leads to a healthier, simpler life, and also to changes in diet towards foods which are not poisoned by various kinds of toxins. Tone ‘Sol’ cleans the cell from different kinds of electromagnetic radiations. Another application of this sound frequency is solving problems of any nature. The fifth frequency of the Solfeggio scale will also lead you into the power of self-expression, which results in a pure and stable life.
LA – 852 Hz
Intent: awakening intuition, returning to spiritual order
Tone ‘La’ is linked to your ability to see through the illusions of your life, such as hidden agendas of people, places and things. This frequency can be used as means for opening a person up for communication with the all-embracing Spirit. It raises awareness and lets you return to spiritual order. Regarding cellular processes, 852 Hz enables the cell to transform itself into a system of higher level.
Additional research conducted by Dr. Leonard Horowitz claims to have revealed three more Solfeggio frequencies:
SI – 963 Hz
This tone awakens any system to its original, perfect state. It is connected with the Light and all-embracing Spirit, and enables direct experience, the return to Oneness. This frequency re-connects you with the Spirit, or the non-vibrational energies of the spiritual world. It will enable you to experience Oneness – our true nature.
174 Hz
The lowest of the tones appears to be a natural anesthetic. It tends to reduce pain physically and energetically. 174 Hz frequency gives your organs a sense of security, safety and love, encouraging them to do their best.
285 Hz
This frequency helps return tissue into its original form. 285 Hz influences energy fields, sending them a message to restructure damaged organs. It also leaves your body rejuvenated and energized.
Solfeggio scale and the additional tones
As you already know, the original Solfeggio scale has 6 tones. The tones are: 396, 417, 528, 639, 741 & 852. Following the pattern established by these original tones, additional frequencies can be calculated. There are three frequencies which can be calculated below the 396 before breaking the pattern (63, 174, 285) and there are infinite frequencies that can be calculated above the 852. See below:
63
174 – reduce pain
285 – influence energy fields
396 – turn grief into joy
417 – facilitate change
528 – transformation & miracles
639 – reconnecting, relationships
741 – expressions/solutions
852 – return to spiritual order
963 – awaken perfect state
1074
1185
1296
1317
etc.
All these additional frequencies reduce to a 3, 6, or 9, but does it mean that we should use them just like the main tones from the Solfeggio scale? To be honest, I would recommend focusing on the 9 Solfeggio tones. The 6 main and the 3 additional tones (174, 285, 936) hold an infinite array of healing properties. They have been well researched and many people experience their benefits every day. See the testimonials.
I know that some artists utilize the additional frequencies in their work and while there is nothing wrong with doing this, it is my experience that they don’t strengthen the power of the main tones. The same is about the so-called ‘Master frequency’ (1122Hz). Rather than trying to reinvent the wheel I would recommend applying the simplicity, beauty and harmony of the original Solfeggio scale.

432 Tuning and Frequency

A=432 Hz, known as Verdi’s ‘A’ is an alternative tuning that is mathematically consistent with the universe. Music based on 432Hz transmits beneficial healing energy, because it is a pure tone of math fundamental to nature.

The universal music of sacred geometry
According to Brain T. Collins, a musician and researcher, the standard pitch (A=440 Hz) does not harmonize on any level that corresponds to cosmic movement, rhythm, or natural vibration. The greatest musicians, such as Mozart and Verdi, based their music on the natural vibration of A=432. It’s true that it is only 8 vibrations per second different from the standard tuning, but this small difference seems to be remarkable to our human consciousness.
There’s a growing musical and metaphysical movement for recovering optimal integrity in the music industry and spirituality through the 432Hz tuning. In April 2008 Dutch journalist Richard Huisken founded the ‘back to 432 Hz’ committee, claiming that this original tuning was used in ancient cultures and is found on antique instruments like the Stradivarius violin.
The healing benefits
According to Richard Huisken, music tuned to 432 Hz is softer and brighter, giving greater clarity and is easier on the ears. Many people experience more meditative and relaxing states of body and mind when listening to such music. The natural musical pitch of the universe gives a more harmonic and pleasant sound than 440 Hz.
432 Hz seems to work at the heart chakra, “the feeling”, and therefore could have a good influence on the spiritual development of the listener. Some people who are not able to distinguish the 8hz difference claim they can feel the music warmer due to the longer wavelength.
Listen to 432Hz and enjoy living in balance
Because 432 Hz gives a greater clarity than 440 Hz, there’s less need to play it as loud as 440 Hz. This means less hearing damage, as long as you put the volume not too high. Furthermore there’s also less noise pressure. Researchers and musicians, such as Coreen Morsink (pianist and music teacher), report that they feel calmer, happier and more relaxed when playing music at 432Hz.
Music based on this natural tone is more transparent, more marked, gives an obvious musical picture and the overtones and undertones moves more freely. Music based on 440 Hz represents stuffed emotions and blocked energy. By lowering the pitch by just 8 Hz, you became more flexible and spontaneous. The 432 Hz tuning releases your energy and takes you into a beautiful state, where relaxation is natural.
Where does it come from?
According to Ananda Bosman, international researcher and musician, archaic Egyptian instruments that have been unearthed are largely tuned to A=432Hz. Ancient Greeks tuned their instruments predominantly to 432Hz. Within the archaic Greek Eleusenian Mysteries, Orpheus is the god of music, death and rebirth, and was the keeper of the Ambrosia and the music of transformation. His instruments were tuned at 432Hz.
Orpheus playing at in harmony with nature
Guiseppe Verdi, an Italian composer, placed A exactly at 432 Hz. He did this because this tuning is ideal for opera voices. Jamie Buturff, sound researcher, found out that some Tibetan monks used this tuning in their hand-made instruments. He put a CD with Tibetan singing bowls into his player and used a Korg tuner to discover that the bowls were all harmonic to the 432 music scale.
This musical tuning can be found throughout various religions and cultures of the ancient world. It seems that implementing it into the musical instruments was a good choice. Even today, many musicians report positive effects from retuning to 432 Hz, such as better audience response and a more laid-back feel to their performances.
Why the modern world forgot about this tuning
This is because in 1885 it already had been decided that A at 440 Hz had to be the standard tuning. A year earlier, Guiseppe Verdi wrote a letter addressed to the Music Commission of the Italian Government. In the letter he writes:
“Since France has adopted a standard pitch, I advised that the example should also be followed by us; and I formally requested that the orchestras of various cities of Italy, among them that of the Scala [Milan], to lower the tuning fork to conform to the standard French one. If the musical commis­sion instituted by our government believes, for mathematical exigencies, that we should reduce the 435 vibrations of French tuning fork to 432, the difference is so small, almost imper­ceptible to the ear, that I associate myself most willingly with this.” Guiseppe Verdi
Unfortunately, the great composer was unsuccessful in his attempt. The American Federation of Musicians accepted the A440 as the standard pitch in 1917. Around 1940 the United States introduced 440 Hz worldwide, and finally in 1953 it became the ISO 16-standard.
There is a theory that the change from 432Hz to 440Hz was dictated by Nazi propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels. He used it to make people think and feel a certain manner, and to make them a prisoner of a certain consciousness. The Joseph Goebbels theory is certainly interesting, but the true reason of the shift to 440Hz is still not clearly explained.
Before 440Hz became the standard, a variety of tunings were used. The controversy over tuning still rages, with proponents of 432Hz claiming it as being more natural than the current standard. Because of that, the “back to 432Hz” committee wants to get people acquainted with its qualities, and therefore hopes that the industry will change the musician standard.
However, changing the current standard won’t be a simple task, and it’s not because of the influence of any nefarious organization. In my opinion, the reason is more trivial. Most musical instruments can be adjusted in principle, but it’s not so easy for every instrument. For example, most woodwind instruments cannot play in 432Hz because changing the pitch will also change the internal harmonic structure of the whole instrument. The change would require building new instruments.
Let the music of the spheres play inside you
432Hz unites you with the universal harmony
This musical pitch is connected to the numbers used in the construction of a variety of ancient works and sacred places, such as the Great Pyramid of Egypt. It’s also more friendly for your ears. For many people, it is nicer for hearing – softer, brighter and more beautiful than music in 440 Hz.
432Hz is based in nature and therefore it generates healthy effects among the listeners. It brings natural harmony and balance of the 3rd dimension and connects you with a higher consciousness. The pure and clean energy of 432Hz removes mental block and opens a way to a more fulfilling life.
Many ancient instruments are adjusted at 432Hz. It is because the ancients knew that this tone is closely related to the universe around us. Don’t throw away their knowledge. The universal and natural tuning of 432Hz is waiting to be discovered by you.

Convert Music From 440 to 432

“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” – Nikola Tesla

“What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” – Albert Einstein

Tesla said it. Einstein agreed. Science proved it. It is a known fact that everything—including our own bodies—is made up of energy vibrating at different frequencies. That being said, it seems logical to wonder, can sound frequencies affect us? It would appear that this is the case. Frequencies affect frequencies, much like mixing ingredients with other ingredients affects the overall flavour of a meal. The way frequencies affect the physical world has been demonstrated through various experiments, such as the science of Cymatics and water memory.

Cymatics illustrate that when sound frequencies move through a particular medium such as water, air, or sand, they directly alter the vibration of matter. Below are pictures demonstrating how particles adjust to different frequencies. (Click here to watch a video demonstrating the patterns of sound frequencies)

Cymatics

Water memory also illustrates how our own intentions may even alter the material world. This has been demonstrated by Dr. Masaru Emoto, who has performed studies showing how simple intentions through sound, emotions, and thoughts can dramatically shape the way water crystallizes. 




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Water Memory

We all hold a certain vibrational frequency, and our bodies are estimated to be about 70% water. Given the above experiments, it stands to reason that musical frequencies could also alter our own vibrational state. Every expression through sound, emotion, or thought holds a specific frequency which influences everything around it—much like a single drop of water can create a larger ripple effect in a large body of water.

Music Frequency

With this concept in mind, let us bring our attention to the frequency of the music we listen to. Most music worldwide has been tuned to A=440 Hz since the International Standards Organization (ISO) promoted it in 1953. However, when looking at the vibratory nature of the universe, it’s possible that this pitch is disharmonious with the natural resonance of nature and may generate negative effects on human behaviour and consciousness.

Some theories (although unproven) even suggest that the Nazi regime had been in favor of adopting this pitch as standard after conducting scientific research to determine which range of frequencies best induce fear and aggression. Whether or not the conspiracy is factual, interesting studies have pointed towards the benefits of tuning music to A=432 Hz instead.

Mathematics of The Universe

432 Hz is said to be mathematically consistent with the patterns of the universe. It is said that 432 Hz vibrates with the universe’s golden mean PHI and unifies the properties of light, time, space, matter, gravity and magnetism with biology, the DNA code, and consciousness. When our atoms and DNA start to resonate in harmony with the spiralling pattern of nature, our sense of connection to nature is said to be magnified. The number 432 is also reflected in ratios of the sun, Earth, and moon, as well as the precession of the equinoxes, the Great Pyramid of Egypt, Stonehenge, and the Sri Yantra, among many other sacred sites.

“From my own observations, some of the harmonic overtone partials of A=432hz 12T5 appear to line up to natural patterns and also the resonance of solitons. Solitons need a specific range to form into the realm of density and span from the micro to the macro cosmos. Solitons are not only found in water mechanics, but also in the ion-acoustic breath between electrons and protons.” – Brian T. Collins

432 Hz vs. 440 Hz

“color sound chartColor Spectrum Resonance

Another interesting factor to consider is that the A=432 Hz tuning correlates with the color spectrum and chakra system, while the A=440 Hz does not.

The Solar Spectrum & The Cosmic Keyboard
“All of the frequencies in the spectrum are related in octaves, from gamma rays to subharmonics. These colors and notes are also related to our Chakras and other important energy centers. If we are to understand that… Chakras are connected to the Seven Rays of the Solar Spectrum, then the notes and frequencies we use for the same should be the same. A432 Hz is the tuning of the Cosmic Keyboard or Cosmic Pitchfork, as opposed to the A440 Hz modern ‘standard.’ It places C# at 136.10 Hz ‘Om,’ which is the main note of the Sitar in classical Indian music and the pitch of the chants of the Tibetan monks, who tell us, ‘It comes from nature.’” – Dameon Keller

Exploring The Difference

Let’s explore the experiential difference between A=440 Hz and A=432 Hz. Music lovers and musicians have noticed that music tuned in A=432 Hz is not only more beautiful and harmonious to the ears, but it also induces a more inward experience that is felt inside the body at the spine and heart. Music tuned in A=440 Hz was felt as a more outward and mental experience, and was felt at the side of the head which projected outwards. Audiophiles have also stated that A=432hz music seems to be non-local and can fill an entire room, whereas A=440hz can be perceived as directional or linear in sound propagation.

“The ancients tuned their instruments at an A of 432 Hz instead of 440 Hz – and for a good reason. There are plenty of music examples on the internet that you can listen to, in order to establish the difference for yourself. Attuning the instrument to 432 Hz results in a more relaxing sound, while 440 Hz slightly tenses up to body. This is because 440 Hz is out of tune with both macrocosmos and microcosmos. 432 Hz on the contrary is in tune. To give an example of how this is manifested microcosmically: our breath (0,3 Hz) and our pulse (1,2 Hz) relate to the frequency of the lower octave of an A of 432 Hz (108 Hz) as 1:360 and 1:90.” – innergarden.org

“The overall sound difference was noticeable, the 432 version sounding warmer, clearer and instantly sounded more listenable but the 440 version felt tighter, with more aggressive energy.” – Anonymous guitarist

The video below was created by someone with no opinion on whether A=432 Hz or A=440 Hz is better. Therefore, the way both versions of the melody is played is unbiased. It is up to us to tune in and feel which one feels more harmonious to us!

Here’s another example:
David Helpling – Sticks and Stones in 440 hz: http://youtu.be/PewsS9Y9pVo
David Helpling – Sticks and Stones in 432 hz: http://youtu.be/w8KEVikJMck

Personal Thoughts

I personally have enjoyed many bands, artists, and styles of music even though they were tuning in A=440 hz, however, after comparing a few songs in both A=432 hz and A=440 hz I can say I definitely feel and hear the difference. I wouldn’t say that my experience of 440hz music has turned me into an aggressive person, but I can understand how an entire population being exposed to music that is more mind directed as opposed to heart directed—not to mention all of the materialistic and ego-driven lyrics in most popular music—is a perfect combination to maintain a more discordant frequency and state of consciousness within humanity. This is, of course, simply my own opinion.

“Music based on C=128hz (C note in concert A=432hz) will support humanity on its way towards spiritual freedom. The inner ear of the human being is built on C=128 hz.” – Rudolph Steiner

I cannot state with complete certainty that every idea suggested in this article is 100% accurate, nor am I an expert on the subject. I simply gathered interesting information from others who researched this issue more deeply. For this reason, if we are looking for scientific validation for these claims, I suggest that we each do our own research on the matter with an open yet discerning mind. Perhaps more research on this topic will be done in the near future to help explain the phenomenon.

I believe we all possess intuition and the ability to observe without judgment, which can be more useful than resorting to ridicule when exposed to information that has not yet been accepted by the scientific community. It is therefore up to us to tone down the urge to jump to conclusions and instead EXPERIENCE the difference between A=440 Hz and A=432 Hz. To do so, we need to listen with our entire body and a neutral awareness as opposed to with our mental ideas, judgments, and preconceptions. Let me know which frequency resonates more with you!

If you are interested in changing your music’s pitch to A=432 hz, click HERE to learn how to do it.

SOURCES

Omega432: http://omega432.com/432-music/the-importance-of-432hz-music
Daemon Keller: http://dameonkeller.wix.com/esotericartschicago#!sound-&-vibration-and-color-&-light
Inner Garden: http://www.innergarden.org/en/harmonyofspheres.html
Veritas: http://www.medicalveritas.org/MedicalVeritas/Musical_Cult_Control.html
ZenGardner: http://www.zengardner.com/440hz-music-conspiracy-to-detune-us-from-natural-432hz-harmonics/
Why Don’t You Try This: http://www.whydontyoutrythis.com/2013/08/440hz-music-conspiracy-to-detune-good-vibrations-from-natural-432hz.html
Attuned Vibrations: http://attunedvibrations.com/432hz/
Humans Are Free: http://humansarefree.com/2011/05/432-hz-vs-440-hz-documentary.html

All About Copyrights

  • History of Copyrights

    printing press.jpgThe 1710 Statute of Anne established the principles of authors’ ownership of copyright and a fourteen year term of protection. The law prevented a monopoly on the part of the booksellers and created a “public domain” for literature after the expiration of the copyright and ensured that once a work was purchased the copyright owner no longer had complete control over its use. For the first time, the law provided for an author’s copyright.

    Then in 1787, the framers of the United States Constitution wrote in Article I, Section 8, “the Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.”

    victrola.jpgA major revision of the U.S. Copyright Act was completed in 1909, among other things to address the needs of the brand new recording industry. “The bill broadened the scope of categories protected to include all works of authorship, and extended the term of protection to twenty-eight years with a possible renewal of twenty-eight. The main object to be desired in expanding copyright protection accorded to music has been to give the composer an adequate return for the value of his composition, and it has been a serious and difficult task to combine the protection of the composer with the protection of the public, and to so frame an act that it would accomplish the double purpose of securing to the composer an adequate return for all use made of his composition and at the same time prevent the formation of oppressive monopolies, which might be founded upon the very rights granted to the composer for the purpose of protecting his interests” (H.R. Rep. No. 2222, 60th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 7 [1909]).

  • The History of Digital Piracy

    bill gates open letter.jpgThe personal computer debuted on the cover of Popular Electronics in January 1975 and a year later Bill Gates of Microsoft was battling piracy as he was trying to get his fledgling company Microsoft off the ground. In his letter to software pirates of that era, he wrote “Who cares if the people who worked on it get paid?”

  • The Arrival of P2P

    Shawn  Fanning, while a student at Northeastern University in Boston, changed  the  music and media industry with his creation of a digital  file‐sharing program called  Napster. In 1999, he created a software program that allowed computer users to  share and  exchange files.  Napster had several hundred thousand users by the  spring of 2000, and had grown to over 50 million users by February 2001.  This technology is called Peer-to-peer or P2P because it allows “peers”, ordinary computers to exchange files between themselves.

    By 2008, P2P traffic had become 44% of all consumer internet traffic globally and according to “P2P Traffic to Grow Almost 400% over the Next 5 Years, as Legitimate P2P Applications Become a Meaningful Segment” from MultiMedia Intelligence, P2P traffic would grow by 400% by 2013.

    By 2010, according to “Verizon Gets Ahead of the Broadband Crunch” in The Wall Street Journal, file sharing accounted for approximately 35% of all global internet traffic, more than twice as much as web browsing and is forecast to nearly double from 2010 to 2013 to almost 10 Petabytes a month.

    growth of p2p.jpg

    The chart above was generated from data by Cisco in its “Global IP Traffic Forecast and Methodology, 2006-2011” and featured at www.satmagazine.com.

  • The Digital Millennium Copyright Act

    us capitol.jpgIn the United States, the law is strongly in favor of protecting the interests of copyright holders. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), passed in 1997, heightened the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet and established the liability of the providers of on-line services for copyright infringement by their users. The DMCA made illegal the manufacture, sale, or distribution of code-cracking devices used to illegally copy software, e.g. Limewire, eDonkey and BitTorrent. Additionally, the DMCA states that service providers may not allow the illegal downloading of copyrighted materials via their systems.

    The United States Code 17 U.S.C. 504. states as follows:

    “Remedies for infringement: Damages and profits (2) In a case where the copyright owner sustains the burden of proving, and the court finds, that infringement was committed willfully, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages to a sum of not more than $150,000.”

    The music industry has spent millions of dollars searching for a technology breakthrough to protect copyrighted works. These technologies were often referred to as Digital Rights Management (DRM). DRM technologies attempt to prevent digital music player technology from allowing reproduction. These efforts failed to stem the tide of illegal downloading.

    • Beginning in 2002, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the trade group that represents the U.S Music Industry, filed the first lawsuits against individuals who were suspected of illegally downloading music.
    • In 2006, Free Peers Inc. closed its business due to a $30 million settlement with the recording industry.  Under the DMCA, the industry has won lawsuits against Napster, Grokster, Bearshare, Limewire and many others.
    • By October 2008, RIAA had filed 30,000 lawsuits against individual downloaders.

    Even with 30,000 lawsuits filed and millions of dollars collected, P2P traffic had still grown worldwide to represent more than 40% of all consumer internet traffic.

    ISPs Have Liability If They Do Not Act

    If ISPs are required to make a reasonable effort to curtail illegal activity on their networks. ISPs are given “Safe Harbor” protection as long as once the ISP is notified of a copyright infringement, they forward the notice to their customer.

    Additionally, the DMCA requires ISPs to suspend the service of “repeat infringers.”

  • How P2P Is Misused

    p2p network.jpgA February 2010 study done by Sauhard Sahi at Princeton University found that only 1% of files transferred on Bittorrent did not infringe on copyrighted material.

    P2P is Profitable for Pirates

    In 2008, it was revealed that just one BitTorrent hosting/tracker site was making $4 million a year on advertising.

    Additionally, these sites are making money scraping user’s data from their hard drives and selling it for marketing and even identity theft purposes.

    In February 2010, The Federal Trade Commission sent letters to almost 100 organizations notifying them that personal information, including sensitive data about customers and employees, had been shared from their computer networks and was available on peer -to-peer (P2P) file-sharing networks to any users of those networks, who could use it to commit identity theft or fraud.

    How File Sharing Works

    First, a user downloads Frostwire software or any number of other free Gnutella Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications, installs the application on their computer, and searches for a song, movie or game. The Gnutella application then sends a request to the Gnutella network, a voluntary network of all users of Gnutella applications.

    The application uses the network to create a list of all of the available versions of the requested content, which is then displayed. The user selects the version and source of the content that they want to download. The Gnutella application then sends a request for the content out to the network. Usually, the previous users who have downloaded the content have the content available on their computer for the next person who wants it.  After downloading, they would specifically have to disable the application from offering it back to the network. The Gnutella clients literally “talk amongst themselves” without any involvement from the user and the full piece of content gets sent to the requested user in many small pieces from many individual user’s computers. Very quickly, the user has the desired content in moments.  An entire discography can take as little as five minute to download on ordinary connections, for free.

    By contrast, the BitTorrent P2P network works in a different way.  First, the user locates a “torrent” file that contains the detailed location of the computers that have the source files. Think of almost any popular old or new recording artists or movie and enter the name into Google. Google will often display a drop down list that will contain the word “discography.” Within the first page of search results you will see the links to the torrent site for the artist or movie. These torrent pages also create revenue from serving advertisements.

    Public torrent hosting sites such as The Pirate Bay allow users to search and download from their collection of torrent files. Users can typically also upload torrent files for content they wish to distribute. Often, these sites also run BitTorrent trackers for their hosted torrent files, but these two functions are not mutually dependent: a torrent file could be hosted on one site and tracked by another, unrelated site.

    The industry has developed its own terminology. Seeders are people who have finished downloading 100% of a file and are sharing it for download. Leachers are people who are downloading the file and sharing a small part of it at the same time.

    In order to obtain and maintain rapid downloads; a user usually must allow their computer to upload desired content back to the network.

    BitTorrent Private host/tracker sites such as Demonoid operate like public ones except that they restrict access to registered users and keep track of the amount of data each user uploads and downloads, in an attempt to reduce leeching.

    BitTorrent search engines allow the discovery of torrent files that are hosted and tracked on other sites; examples include Mininova, BTJunkie, Torrentz, The Pirate Bay, Eztorrent and isoHunt. These sites allow the user to ask for content meeting specific criteria (such as containing a given word or phrase) and retrieve a list of links to torrent files matching those criteria.

– See more at: http://www.rightscorp.com/notices/about-copyrights#sthash.aCZP1nI0.dpuf

 

How Music Publishing Works

You need a leader like Sound Saves to be your guide in music publishing because of our excellent systems and strategies to get you to success.

The business of music publishing is concerned with marketing, developing, managing, protecting and valuing music. It’s diverse and demands a variety of our skills. Music publishers play a vital role in the development of new music and in taking care of the business side, allowing composers and songwriters to concentrate on their creative work.

music publisher is responsible for ensuring the songwriters and composers receive payment when their compositions are used commercially. Through agreements that address publishing, a songwriter or composer “assigns” the copyright of their composition to us. In return, our company licenses compositions, helps monitor where compositions are used, collects royalties and distributes them to the composers. We also secure payments and commissions for music and promote existing compositions to recording artists, film and television.

We seek out great music, great composers and songwriters; supports composers and songwriters in the creative process; promote their catalogs across a variety of platforms; and manage the business exploitation of the catalogs. This many times includes management and marketing type activity. We step in and book shows, design web sites, distribute and sell music online, handle all administration, reporting, the registration of music, and the collection and onward payment of all due royalties. Lead Alliance generally seeks to protect and enhance the value of their works with passion and professional commitment.

What does a music publisher do?

The business is diverse and demands a variety of skills. The role of a music publisher involves:

  • Finding new and talented songwriters and composers and encouraging and supporting them as they develop their skills, whether through helping with their living expenses, providing them with the facilities they need to produce music or offering advice and guidance in writing for particular markets
  • Securing commissions for new works and helping to coordinate work flow
  • Registering the works of songwriters and composers with all appropriate collecting societies and agencies like ASCAP and BMI
  • Producing demo recordings
  • Producing and licensing the production of printed music
  • Producing promotional materials, graphic design, web sites, banner ads, and more
  • Promoting producers and songwriters and their music to venues, performers, broadcasters, record companies and others who use music on a commercial basis, both nationally and internationally
  • Licensing the use of music, whether directly in the case of individual and special usages (eg synchronisation deals) or via the collecting society network
  • Responding to new licensing opportunities that flow from technological developments
  • Monitoring and tracking the use of the music you own and ensuring that proper payment is made for all licensed uses
  • Making royalty payments to songwriters and producers in respect of the usage of their music
  • Taking appropriate action against anyone using music without the necessary licence

 

 

Music Sample Clearance

Everything You Need To Know About Clearing Samples


We routinely dig through our old emails here at Sound Hype headquarters, looking to find better, more effective ways to teach and help our clientele. One of the most popular questions we’ve had through the years is about how to clear samples for production.

If you’ve ever wondered if you had to clear a sample, when you have to clear a sample or how you go about clearing a sample, read on.

First things first: In the eyes of the law, there are two kinds of sampling. 

1. Sampling – Taking another piece of music (aka the master recording) and creating a new, derivative work, and

2. Interpolation – Replaying a part of another piece of music (aka the composition) and incorporating it into your own music

Depending on which of the above you do, there will be different factors to consider due to the two different forms of music copyrights

1. Copyright for the master recording (the original recorded music), and

2. Copyright for the musical composition (the melodies and lyrics)

If you sample a master recording, you will need to get clearance from the record label for the rights to use the master recording AND clearance from the original publishers of the composition. If you interpolate a sample, you no longer need to get clearance for the rights to the master, but you will still need to get clearance from the publishers.

So those are the basics. Here’s where it starts getting tricky.

When should you actually begin clearing samples?

NOTE: We are not lawyers, so this is not legal advice. We have, however, been around the proverbial legal block a time or two, so we speak from experience and feel comfortable making some common sense observations.

Things to consider:

A high-profile rapper like 50 Cent puts out “mixtapes” for free which contain a ton of samples. Hundreds of thousands of people download them for promotional purposes, but he doesn’t clear the samples on these mixtapes, because he is not profiting from the music itself. As far as we’re aware, he’s never been sued for this.

-If you head over to Best Buy and take a look at the CD racks, you’ll find thousands of CDs that contain uncleared samples.

-This may be a bit of a stretch, but one of our guys had a long conversation with a certain executive who worked very closely on the creation of a certain album released in the late 90s. This exec informed us that they never cleared a few of the samples on the album, and it had multi-platinum sales.

– Before you begin, you should know that this can be an extremely expensive proposition. Sample clearance houses can charge a few hundred dollars just to find out how much it will cost you to clear a sample. Not exactly economical.  Plus, you may pay that $400 and find out that the artist you want to sample won’t allow you to use the sample  you want.  So if you’ve been wondering whether you should clear the beats on your beat CD, while we won’t tell you “no,” we will say that you should consider all the factors involved.

It is nearly impossible to bear down and do the research yourself, but if you approach the creator of the track as opposed to a big clearance house, you may end up with the sample you want and giving up less in the long run. However, if you’re not dealing with a track that you think will make significant waves – and by that, we mean you’re fairly confident the track you want to put out there will be a significant addition to the music world – any of this is likely to be too expensive for your return on investment.

The facts presented here show that clearing samples is mostly unnecessary. If you’re doing this for a hobby, it’s a non-starter. If you’re planning on having a hit record, nothing should stand in your way of getting it made and getting it out there.

That being said, making any money off a sample or using it as promotional material is illegal… but so is jay walking.

Use your head. Be safe out there. And cover your assets.

10 Things You Didn’t Know About Sound

Most of us have become so used to suppressing noise that we don’t think much about what we’re hearing, or about how we listen. Yet our well-being is now being seriously damaged by modern sound. Here are 10 things about sound and health that you may not know:

1.) You are a chord. This is obvious from physics, though it’s admittedly somewhat metaphorical to call the combined rhythms and vibrations within a human being a chord, which we usually understand to be an aesthetically pleasant audible collection of tones. But “the fundamental characteristic of nature is periodic functioning in frequency, or musical pitch,” according to C.T. Eagle. Matter is vibrating energy; therefore, we are a collection of vibrations of many kinds, which can be considered a chord.

2.) One definition of health may be that chord is in complete harmony. The World Health Organization defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” which opens at least three dimensions to the concept. On a philosophical level, Plato, Socrates, Pythagoras and Confucius all wrote at length about the relationship between harmony, music and health (both social and physical). Here’s Socrates: “Rhythm and harmony find their way into the inward places of the soul, on which they mightily fasten, imparting grace, and making the soul of him who is rightly educated graceful, or of him who is ill-educated ungraceful.”

3.) We see one octave; we hear ten. An octave is a doubling in frequency. The visual spectrum in frequency terms is 400-790 THz, so it’s just under one octave. Humans with great hearing can hear from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, which is ten octaves.

4.) We adopt listening positions. Listening positions are a useful set of perspectives that can help people to be more conscious and effective in communication — because expert listening can be just as powerful as speaking. For example, men typically adopt a reductive listening position, listening for something, often a point or solution.

Women, by contrast, typically adopt an expansive listening position, enjoying the journey, going with the flow. When unconscious, this mismatch causes a lot of arguments.

Other listening positions include judgmental (or critical), active (or reflective), passive (or meditative) and so on. Some are well known and widely used; for example, active listening is trained into many therapists, counselors and educators.

5.) Noise harms and even kills. There is now wealth of evidence about the harmful effect of noise, and yet most people still consider noise a local matter, not the major global issue it has become.

According to a 1999 U.S. Census report, Americans named noise as the number one problem in neighborhoods. Of the households surveyed, 11.3 percent stated that street or traffic noise was bothersome, and 4.4 percent said it was so bad that they wanted to move. More Americans are bothered by noise than by crime, odors and other problems listed under “other bothersome conditions.”

The European Union says: “Around 20% of the Union’s population or close on 80 million people suffer from noise levels that scientists and health experts consider to be unacceptable, where most people become annoyed, where sleep is disturbed and where adverse health effects are to be feared. An additional 170 million citizens are living in so-called ‘grey areas’ where the noise levels are such to cause serious annoyance during the daytime.”

The World Health Organization says: “Traffic noise alone is harming the health of almost every third person in the WHO European Region. One in five Europeans is regularly exposed to sound levels at night that could significantly damage health.”

The WHO is also the source for the startling statistic about noise killing 200,000 people a year. Its findings (LARES report) estimate that 3 percent of deaths from ischemic heart disease result from long-term exposure to noise. With 7 million deaths a year globally, that means 210,000 people are dying of noise every year.

The cost of noise to society is astronomical. The EU again: “Present economic estimates of the annual damage in the EU due to environmental noise range from EUR 13 billion to 38 billion. Elements that contribute are a reduction of housing prices, medical costs, reduced possibilities of land use and cost of lost labour days.” (Future Noise Policy European Commission Green Paper 1996).

Then there is the effect of noise on social behavior. The U.S. report “Noise and its effects” (Administrative Conference of the United States, Alice Suter, 1991) says: “Even moderate noise levels can increase anxiety, decrease the incidence of helping behavior, and increase the risk of hostile behavior in experimental subjects. These effects may, to some extent, help explain the “dehumanization” of today’s urban environment.”

Perhaps Confucius and Socrates have a point.

6.) Schizophonia is unhealthy. “Schizophonia” describes a state where what you hear and what you see are unrelated. The word was coined by the great Canadian audiologist Murray Schafer and was intended to communicate unhealthiness. Schafer explains: “I coined the term schizophonia intending it to be a nervous word. Related to schizophrenia, I wanted it to convey the same sense of aberration and drama.”

My assertion that continual schizophonia is unhealthy is a hypothesis that science could and should test, both at personal and also a social level. You have only to consider the bizarre jollity of train carriages now — full of lively conversation but none of it with anyone else in the carriage — to entertain the possibility that this is somehow unnatural. Old-style silence at least had the virtue of being an honest lack of connection with those around us. Now we ignore our neighbors, merrily discussing intimate details of our lives as if the people around us simply don’t exist. Surely this is not a positive social phenomenon.

7. Compressed music makes you tired. However clever the technology and the psychoacoustic algorithms applied, there are many issues with data compression of music, as discussed in this excellent article by Robert Harley back in 1991. My assertion that listening to highly compressed music makes people tired and irritable is based on personal and anecdotal experience – again it’s one that I hope will be tested by researchers.

8. Headphone abuse is creating deaf kids. Over 19 percent of American 12 to 19 years old exhibited some hearing loss in 2005-2006, an increase of almost 5 percent since 1988-94 (according to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association by Josef Shargorodsky et al, reported with comments from the researchers here). One university study found that 61 percent of freshmen showed hearing loss (Leeds 2001).

Many audiologists use the rule of thumb that your headphones are too loud if you can’t hear someone talking loudly to you. For example, Robert Fifer, an associate professor of audiology and speech pathology at the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, says: “If you can still hear what people are saying around you, you are at a safe level. If the volume is turned so loudly that you can no longer hear conversation around you, or if someone has to shout at you at a distance of about 2 or 3 feet to get your attention, then you are up in the hazardous noise range.”

9. Natural sound and silence are good for you. These assertions seem to be uncontroversial. Perhaps they resonate with everyone’s experience or instinct.

10. Sound can heal. Both music therapy and sound therapy can be categorized as “sound healing.” Music therapy (the use of music to improve health) is a well-established form of treatment in the context of mainstream medicine for many conditions, including dementia and autism.

Less mainstream, though intellectually no more difficult to accept, is sound therapy: the use of tones or sounds to improve health through entrainment (affecting one oscillator with a stronger one). This is long-established: shamanic and community chant and the use of various resonators like bells and gongs, date back thousands of years and are still in use in many cultures around the world.

Just because something is pre-Enlightenment and not done in hospitals doesn’t mean that it’s new-age BS. Doubtless there are charlatans offering snake oil (as in many fields), but I suspect there is also much to learn, and just as herbal medicine gave rise to many of the drugs we use today, I suspect there are rich resources and fascinating insights to be gleaned when science starts to unpack the traditions of sound healing.

I hope these thoughts make a contribution to raising awareness of sound and its effects on health. I welcome your reaction, and I will check this forum and respond.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Julian Treasure.